Clinical Research


Jarit GJ, Mohr KJ, Waller R, Glousman RE. The effects of home interferential therapy on post-operative pain, edema, and range of motion of the knee. Clin J Sport Med. 2003 Jan;13(1):16-20.

Lau PM, Chow DH, Pope MH. Early physiotherapy intervention in an Accident and Emergency Department reduces pain and improves satisfaction for patients with acute low back pain: a randomised trial. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy. 2008 54: 243–249.

Zambito A, Bianchini D, Gatti D, Viapiana O, Rossini M, Adami S. Interferential and horizontal therapies in chronic low back pain: a randomized, double blind, clinical study. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2006 Sep-Oct; 24(5):534-9.

Zambito A1, Bianchini D, Gatti D, Rossini M, Adami S, Viapiana O. Interferential and horizontal therapies in chronic low back pain due to multiple vertebral fractures: a randomized, double blind, clinical study. Osteoporos Int. 2007 Nov; 18(11):1541-5. Epub 2007 Jul 4.

Albornoz-Cabello M, Sanchez-Santos JA, Melero-Suarez R, Heredia-Rizo AM, Espejo-Antunez L. Effects of Adding Interferential Therapy ElectroMassage to Usual Care after Surgery in Subacromial Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial. J Clin Med. 2019 Feb 2;8(2).

Rajfur J, Pasternok M, Rajfur K, Walewicz K, Fras B, Bolach B, Dymarek R, Rosinczuk J, Halski T, Taradaj J. Efficacy of Selected Electrical Therapies on Chronic Low Back Pain: A Comparative Clinical Pilot Study. Med Sci Monit. 2017 Jan 7;23:85-100.

Cheing GL, Hui-Chan CW. Analgesic Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Interferential Current on Heat Pain in Healthy Subjects. J Rehabil Med 2003 Jan;35(1):15-9.


CT2 / Neuromuscular Clinical References

Laura A. Talbot, Col, USAFR (Ret.)*; Emily Brede*; Marquita N. Price, Lt Col, USAF, NC†; Pilar d. Zuber‡; E. Jeffrey Metter, COL, USAR (Ret.)* MILITARY MEDICINE, 184, 7/8:e174, 2019

Jones S, Man WDC, Gao W, Higginson IJ, Wilcock A, Maddocks M, Cochrane, Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle weakness in adults with advanced disease, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD009419.

Santos RL, Souza MLS, Santos FA. Neuromuscular electric stimulation in patellofemoral dysfunction: Literature review. Acta Ortop Bras. [online]. 2013;21(1):52-58. Available from URL:

Taradaj J, Halski T, Kucharzewski M, Walewicz K, Smykla A, Ozon M, Slupska L, Dymarek R, Ptaszkowski K, Rajfur J, Pasternok M. The effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and knee function in professional soccer players: return to sport after ACL reconstruction. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:802534.

Assem A. Sultan1, Linsen T. Samuel, Anil Bhave, Annals of Translational Medicine. Ann Transl Med 2019;7(Suppl 7):S246 | atm.2019.08.24

Michael J. Toth, PhD, Timothy W. Tourville, PhD, ATC, Thomas B. Voigt1, Rebecca H. Choquette, ATC, Bradley M. Anair1, Michael J. Falcone, Mathew J. Failla, PT, PhD, Jennifer E. Stevens-Lapslaey, PT, PhD, Nathan K. Endres, MD, James R. Slauterbeck, MD, Bruce D. Beynnon, PhD. Utility of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation to Preserve Quadriceps Muscle Fiber Size and Contractility Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Reconstruction: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Blinded Tria. Am J Sports Med. 2020 August ; 48(10): 2429–2437. doi:10.1177/0363546520933622.

Robert A Bruce-Brand, Raymond J Walls, Joshua C Ong, Barry S Emerson, John M O’Byrne, Niall M Moyna. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2012, 13:118